Almost every university you apply to in the US will want to know your ability to speak, write, read, and understand the English language. Most schools rely on the following standardized English language tests: C1 Advanced, The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), and the International English Language Testing System exam (IELTS).
Since the majority of American schools enrolling international students accept all of these tests, it is important for you to review the similarities and differences between them. Use our guide to English language tests for international students to help you decide which test is best for you.
C1 Advanced: An Overview
Cambridge Assessment English is a department of the University of Cambridge and they develop a wide range of exams and tests for learners of all abilities and ages. Cambridge English Qualifications cover their range of in-depth exams, with each exam focused on a level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Designed to test the skills that universities and employers are looking for, C1 Advanced is the most widely accepted Cambridge English Qualification for admissions. Cambridge Assessment English is also the producer and co-owner of IELTS.
C1 Advanced is available as a computer-based or paper-based test, and is made up of four sections.
C1 Advanced: Reading and Use of English
Question breakdown: 56 questions
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes
C1 Advanced: Writing
Question breakdown: two parts
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes
C1 Advanced: Listening
Question breakdown: 30 questions
Time: about 40 minutes
C1 Advanced: Speaking
Question breakdown: four parts
Time: 15 minutes
C1 Advanced: Reading and Use of English Overview
The structure of the C1 Advanced Reading and Use of English is as follows:
Parts 1 to 4: you read a range of texts and complete grammar and vocabulary tasks. There is a mix of questions, such as multiple choice and fill in the gap.
Parts 5 to 8: you read a series of texts and then answer questions that test your reading ability. There is a mix of questions, such as multiple choice and matching.
Texts may be from newspapers and magazines, journals, books (fiction and nonfiction), and promotional and informational materials.
C1 Advanced: Writing Overview
In this section, you produce two different pieces of writing, such as a letter, report, review, or essay.
Part 1: you read a text and then write an essay based on the points included in the text. You will be asked to explain which of the two points is more important and provide support for your opinion.
Part 2: you write a text from a choice of text types — an email/letter, proposal, report or review.
C1 Advanced: Listening Overview
The Listening section has four parts. In each part, you listen to a recording and answer questions. Each recording is played twice.
The four recordings you will listen and respond to are:
Three short extracts from conversations
A monologue (~3 minutes)
A conversation between two or more speakers (~4 minutes)
Five themed monologues (~30 seconds each)
The section has a mix of questions including multiple choice, matching, and sentence completion.
Monologue recordings may come from lectures, speeches, talks, radio broadcasts, or personal anecdotes. Conversation recordings may be from interviews, radio broadcasts, discussions, or conversations.
C1 Advanced: Speaking Overview
You take the Speaking test together with another candidate.
You speak with the examiner, the other candidate, and on your own. You will be evaluated on your ability to communicate effectively face-to-face and whether you express yourself with a high level of fluency.
Part 1: the examiner asks you about your personal interests or studies. This lasts about two minutes.
Part 2: you are given three photographs and you talk about two of them for one minute. You listen to what the other candidate says about their photographs and then comment on what they have said for about 30 seconds.
Part 3: you are given spoken instructions and written prompts. You talk with the other candidate about the written prompts for two minutes. The examiner then asks you another question and you have one to two minutes to talk with the other candidate and make a decision together.
Part 4: you have a discussion with the other candidate on the topics or issues raised in Part 3, guided by questions from the examiner. This lasts approximately five minutes.
TOEFL: An Overview
The TOEFL is produced and governed by Educational Testing Service (ETS). There are different versions of the TOEFL, but most students — around 97% — take the internet-based version (or iBT) on a computer.
The TOEFL is a three-hour test with four sections: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Each section is graded on a scale of 0-30 for a maximum point value of 120.
Here is how the sections are broken down:
Question breakdown: 3–4 reading passages, 12–14 questions each
Time: 54–72 minutes
Question breakdown: 4–6 lectures, six questions each; 2–3 conversations, five questions each
Time: 41–57 minutes
Question breakdown: six tasks: two independent, four integrated
Time: 17 minutes
Question breakdown: two tasks
Time: 50 minutes
If you take the TOEFL iBT test multiple times, you can use your best scores on each section.
TOEFL Reading Section Overview
The questions in the reading section are meant to test your ability to read English to find information, for basic comprehension, and to read to learn.
The reading section is comprised of three question formats:
Multiple-choice format requiring you to select the correct answer from four choices
Inserting a sentence where it best fits in a passage from four potential choices
A “reading to learn” section with multiple correct answers
TOEFL Listening Section Overview
The listening section of the TOEFL English language proficiency test covers the following:
Recognizing a speaker’s attitude and the purpose of what the speaker is saying
Understanding the importance of order, relationships, inferences, and connections
Here are the question formats:
Traditional multiple choice
Multiple choice with more than one correct answer
Questions that require you to sequence events correctly
TOEFL Speaking Section Overview
The speaking section measures your ability to speak English in and out of academic settings. The six categories are broken up into independent and integrated speaking tasks.
Independent speaking tasks require you to draw upon your ideas, experience, and opinions. There are two independent speaking tasks per test.
Integrated speaking tasks require you to combine speaking with listening or reading to answer questions. There are four integrated speaking tasks per test.
For all speaking section tasks, you will be required to use a headset with a microphone on the iBT version of the test.
TOEFL Writing Section Overview
The writing section of the TOEFL English language tests your integrated and independent writing skills.
Integrated writing tasks require you to write academic argument in response to a prompt.
Independent writing tasks require you to express an idea or opinion in writing.
IELTS: An Overview
The IELTS exam is produced and managed by the British Council, IDP: IELTS Australia, and Cambridge Assessment English. The academic version of the test consists of one listening, reading, writing, and speaking section and lasts two hours and 45 minutes.
Each section is graded on a 0–9 scale, with zero representing a non-user or someone who skipped the test and nine representing an expert. Your scores are added up across all sections and then averaged and rounded to give you a comprehensive score.
Question breakdown: four recordings, 10 questions each
Time: 30 minutes
Question breakdown: three readings, 40 questions total
Time: 60 minutes
Question breakdown: two questions
Time: 60 minutes
Question breakdown: one oral interview
Time: 11–14 minutes
The IELTS used to be paper-based, but recently a computer-based version became available and is being rolled out to testing locations worldwide. It is worth noting that the speaking section of the computer-based IELTS exam is still administered face to face, the same as the paper-based test, and can be completed at some testing centers as much as a week in advance of your official test date.
IELTS Listening Section Overview
In the listening section, you will answer multiple choice questions, matching and labeling questions, and sentence and diagram completion questions. There are four recordings you will have to listen and respond to:
An everyday social conversation between two people
An everyday monologue or speech
A conversation between as many as four people in an educational context
An academic lecture by one person
IELTS Reading Section Overview
The topics of reading section passages on the IELTS English proficiency test can range from descriptive and factual to discursive and analytical. There are many question types in this section, from multiple choice to matching to sentence and diagram completion.
IELTS writing section overview
In the writing section of the IELTS English language proficiency test, you will have to answer two task-based questions.
The first question will ask you to describe some visual cue, such as a graph or flowchart. You will have to write approximately 150 words in 20 minutes.
The second question will ask you to respond to a point of view or argument. You will need to write 250 words in about 40 minutes.
IELTS speaking section overview
The speaking section of the IELTS English language exam consists of three parts and assesses your spoken English skills.
Part 1 lasts around five minutes and requires you to speak your answers to general questions on familiar topics.
Part 2 requires you to respond to a topic written on a card. Your interviewer will also ask follow-up questions.
Part 3 lasts about five minutes and will continue with questions related to the topic on the card in Part 2. Expect these questions to be more abstract and difficult.
Other English Language Tests Available
Cambridge English: C1 Advanced, TOEFL, and IELTS are not the only tests accepted by US universities. While not as widely accepted as the three outlined above, the following tests are growing in popularity and represent different formats and styles, which may be beneficial to you as a test taker. Here are three more tests that are on the rise:
iTEP exam: The iTEP, or International Test of English Proficiency, is accepted at approximately 700 different schools, including Shorelight partner universities Cleveland State University and Adelphi International. You can receive your iTEP exam results as quickly as 24 hours after you take the exam.
PTE Academic: The PTE, or Pearson Test of English Academic, is sponsored by Pearson, the largest textbook publisher in the world. The PTE Academic is accepted at more than 900 universities in the United States. The PTE Academic uses artificial intelligence (AI) to grade the test, claiming a boost in unbiased results.
Cambridge English Qualifications B1 Preliminary and B2 First: Accepted by Shorelight and hundreds of US universities, these exams from Cambridge Assessment English cover all four skills and target learners with a lower level of English. Cambridge English Qualifications are designed so that each exam builds on the skills you develop at the previous level.
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